Khetha Ikhasi

ukuhlaziywa kwe-maggot-ibhizinisi-ukulima

Ukuhlaziywa kwebhizinisi lokuhlakulela izimbungulu ezingenasici

Ukuhlaziywa kokulima kwe-Magorous Odorless - Ukuhlaziya ukulima okungahambi kahle, isici sokuqala esibalulekile okufanele sicatshangelwe sihlobene nezinto ezisetshenziswayo. Ekuhlolisweni kwe-BSF ukuhlakulela noma ukuhlaziywa kwezinkomo, lokhu kuyiluhlaza okusetshenziselwa imfucuza ephilayo, i-factory waste kanye nomquba. Ezinye izici ezibalulekile ukuhlaziywa kwe-BSF ukulima, okungukuthi

I-1. Izinto eziwusizo

Isici sokuqala sokuhlaziya ukulima kwe-BSF sikhetha izinto zokusetshenziswa. futhi lokho esikukhethayo kuyimfucuza ephilayo, ngokuvamile imfucuza yemvelo ayinayo ukubaluleka kwezomnotho futhi ivame ukuphonswa kude. Ngaphezu kwalokho, okwamanje ubukhona bayo buvame ukuxuba imfucuza engavamile.

Ngakho-ke, ukuze uthole izinto eziwusizo zokukhiqiza izinto zokusetshenziswa, kubalulekile ukuzama ukuhlunga udoti oluphilayo. Umbuzo uwukuthi, ingabe abalimi bangakwenza ngokwabo?

Ukuhlunga imfucuza yemvelo kufanele kwenziwe ngokuhlelekile, kokubili nezinhlangano zomphakathi kanye nohulumeni wasekhaya. Uma lesi sinyathelo kunzima ukufeza, abalimi bangasebenza ndawonye nezimboni zokudla ezinokudla okuningi.

Ngokuvamile, ukuba khona kwemfucuza yabo kuhlukaniswe kahle. Abakhiqizi kufanele balinganise amandla okudoba okungalawulwa njalo ukuze isondo sebhizinisi likwazi ukugijima kahle.

I-2. Isigaba seBathengi

Isici sesibili ekuhlaziyweni kwe-BSF ukutshala ukuhlukaniswa komthengi. Le mboni yokukhiqiza i-magot isebenza ngomzamo wokuhlinzeka ngemithombo yamaphrotheni ehlukile yezinhlanzi nokudla kwemfuyo ngezindleko eziphansi ngenxa ye-bioconversion yemfucuza yemvelo.

Uma umzamo wokukhiqiza uqondiswa ekufakeni indawo encane yokudla kwezinhlanzi ezinhlathini noma embonini yokudla kwemfuyo, izoba nethonya elikhulu kulo mboni.

Ngoba inani lentengo yenhlanzi unyaka nonyaka liye landa. Ngaphandle kwalokho, ukutholakala kwamagotane kunethonya eliqondile kubalimi bezinhlanzi nezifuyo. Bayakwazi ukukhiqiza la ma-proteine ​​ahlukile ngokuzenzekelayo ukuze banciphise izindleko zokukhiqiza.

Ezinye izinhlangano ezizojabulela futhi umkhiqizo kule nqubo ye-bioconversion ziyimifino nezithelo zamasimi, ngenxa yokuhlinzekwa kwama-fertilizer ekhwalithi.

ukuhlaziywa kwe-maggot-ibhizinisi-ukulima

I-3. Uhlobo lwebhizinisi

Ukuhlaziywa kwesithathu kwe-BSF ukulimala uhlobo lwebhizinisi oluzokwenziwa. Kunezinhlobo ezimbili zamabhizinisi wokukhiqiza magot asethuthukile.

  • Uhlobo lokuqala yizinkampani ezizimele, ezibalimi noma abalimi abadoba ama-magot ukuze bahlangabezane nezidingo zabo
  • Uhlobo lwesibili luhlobo lwebhizinisi olunomfanekiso we-plasma core partnership. Iphethini lokubambisana le-plasma nucleus yifomu lezimboni elifanele kakhulu ekukhiqizeni ama-magot lapho isikhundla esiyisisekelo (core) sizosebenza njengomkhiqizi weqanda le-BSF.
  • Isikhundla se-plasma sinendima ekukhuliseni umtshina (ukuguqulwa kwemfucuza ephilayo) okungenziwa emayunithi yokwelapha, izindlu, nokunye.
  • I-magot eholeleke yabuye yabuyiselwa yinhloko ukuze iqhutshwe ngokuqhubekayo ibe ufulawa wamagotane noma amapeliteli ezentengiselwano.

I-4. I-Business Scale

Ukulima imaggotha ​​kuyahlukaniswa ngezilinganiso ezintathu zebhizinisi, okungukuthi

  • Ukulima kweMaggot Ekuqaleni
  • Ukutshalwa KwamaMaggot Okuncinci Amancane
  • Ukulima kwesivinini se-Medium Scale
  • Ukulima kwe-Maggot enkulu

Cabanga ukuhlaziywa kwezinkomo ze-maggot njengezinhlanzi nezinkukhu zokudla. Ukuhlaziywa kwemfuyo yemfuyo ukuhlola izinzuzo ezitholakala emisebenzini yokulima umlingo. Imiphumela yalokhu kuhlaziywa ngokuqinisekile kuyisisekelo sokucubungula ngaphambi kokuqala ibhizinisi

ukuhlaziywa kwe-maggot-ibhizinisi-ukulima

Izinhlobo Zokukhiqiza Ibhizinisi

Izinhlobo ezizimele zeqanda kanye nokukhiqizwa kwamagotane zibuye zithengiswe njengezinhlanzi kanye nokudla kwemfuyo, ngaphandle kokuzama ukukhiqiza amapelisi noma ukugcoba ngamagogane. Kuthiwa iteknoloji yamukelwa ngempumelelo ngumphakathi uma igcwalisa lezi zinto ezintathu ezilandelayo

  • Izici zezinto eziphilayo kanye nokukhiqizwa kwezinhlanzi eziphilayo zenziwe kahle
  • Ngokomthetho, ubuchwepheshe bungasetshenziswa
  • Ezomnotho ingaba nezinzuzo

Ukuhlaziywa kwebhizinisi

Ukuhlaziywa kwebhizinisi kuyindlela yokubalwa kwezimali ukunquma ukubaluleka kwezimali noma ukutshalwa kwezimali okudingekayo ekwenzeni ibhizinisi, nokunquma ukuthi kungenzeka yini ibhizinisi. Ezinye zezibalo ezidingekayo ekuhlaziyweni kwebhizinisi kukhona

  • Imali engenayo
  • Izinzuzo zokusebenza
  • Inzuzo enhle
  • Ukwamukela nokulinganisa
  • Izindleko (isilinganiso se-r / c)
  • Ukuphumula-ngisho nephuzu / bep) futhi
  • Isikhathi sokukhokha
  • Uma isilinganiso se-R / C sikhulu kune-1, ibhizinisi liyakwazi ukugijima, futhi ngokufanayo.

Ukusebenza kwalolu hlobo lwebhizinisi kungabuye kuhlolwe kusukela ezinhlanu zokutshala izimali ngendlela elandelayo.

  • I-value yamanje yamanje (i-NPV)
  • Inani lezindleko zenzuzo ephelele (Net B / C)
  • Izinga langaphakathi lokubuyela (IRR)
  • Isikhathi sokukhokha (i-PBP)
  • Vula ngisho ukhomba (BEP)

Ukutshalwa kwezimali okudingekayo ekukhiqizeni amagoti kuhlanganisa izakhiwo ze-insectarium, i-larvarium, imishini yokubala imfucuza, imishini yokunyathelisa kanye namabhalisi. Ukuguquguquka kwezinzindleko ezingezona ezihleliwe

  • Izindleko zokuthutha zokuthumela imfucuza ephilayo,
  • Izindleko zikagesi,
  • Amanani ekhekhe lamafutha e-palm, futhi
  • Iholo lomsebenzi.

A. Ukucatshangelwa kohlelo lokuqala lokuHlangana kweBhizinisi

  • Ekuhlaziyeni lezinkomo ze-maggot, kucatshangwa ukuthi i-insectarium yakhiwe endaweni ye-2 m2 ne-larvarium ehlanganisa indawo ye-3 m2
  • Inani lemfucuza ephilayo esetshenziswa yi-200kg / ngosuku
  • Ama-Magot akhiqizwa ngu-10% wempahla eluhlaza. Okusho ukuthi ukukhiqizwa kwamagot kuyinto i-20 kg / ngosuku
  • Amagot atholakalayo asetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kwe-pupa noma izinambuzane okungenani i-15%, kanti enye i-85% ithengiswa embonini ye-aquaculture
  • Intengo yokuthengisa yamagot kuyinto Rp7.000 / kg
  • Inani lokuthengisa lomanyolo ophilayo kusuka kwinkqubo ye-bioconversion ngu-Rp1.000 / kg.

Izindleko zokusebenza

Ukuhlaziywa kwemfuyo yamagogasi - Imininingwane yezindleko zokutshala izimali kanye nokukhiqizwa kweMagot

ukuhlaziywa kokulima kwe-maggot-BSF

Izindleko Zokukhiqiza Zonke

Inani lezindleko zokukhiqiza ezenziwa ekukhiqizeni ukukhiqizwa kwamagotane ngonyaka owodwa

Izindleko Zokukhiqiza Zonke = Izindleko Ezihleliwe + Izindleko ezingenziwanga Fixed

Rp120.000 + Rp1.850.000 = Rp1.920.000

Ingeniso Yonke Ngonyaka

Imali engenayo ngonyaka ngonyaka = Inani eliphelele lokukhiqizwa kwamagot (kg) X inani lokuthengisa lamagot (Rp)

= (20kg / usuku X Rp7.000) X 85% X (izinsuku ezingu-365 - amasonto angu-52) = Rp43.435.000

Ukulahlekelwa Inzuzo

Inani lezinzuzo ezitholakala ebhizinisini lokukhiqiza lingabalwa ngokusebenzisa ifomula elandelayo.

Inzuzo (Rp) = Ingeniso Yonke (Rp) - Inani Lonke Lokukhiqiza (Rp)

Rp43.435.000 - Rp1.920.000 = Rp41.515.000

Ukutholakala kwamabhizinisi angama-Medium-Scale

Ngokusekelwe kwedatha yokuhlaziywa kwebhizinisi ngenhla, amandla okwenza ibhizinisi lokukhiqiza magot angathathwa kanje:

I-1. I-BEP (Phula ngisho nendawo)

Break Even Point (BEP) ku-Units

i-formula-bep

Incazelo:

  • I-BEP: Phula ngisho nendawo
  • I-FC: Izindleko ezihleliwe
  • I-VC: Izindleko eziguqukayo
  • P: Inani ngeyunithi
  • S: I-Sales Volume

Break Break Point (BEP) e-Rupiah

i-formula-bep-rp

Izindleko ezihleliwe kanye nezindleko ezingapheli ngekg

  • I-Fixed Cost = I-Fixed Cost / Production Unit = 120.000 / 6.205 = 19 Kg
  • Izindleko ezingezona ezihleliwe = Izinkokhelo ezingaguquki / Izindleko zokukhiqiza = 1.850.000 / 6.205 = 298 Kg

BEP Kg

  • Izindleko ezihleliwe / (Intengo yokuthengisa nge-Kg - Izindleko ezifakiwe nge-Kg) = 120.000 / (Rp7.000 - 298Kg) = 18 Kg

I-BEP ku-Rupiah

  • Izindleko ezihleliwe / 1- (Izindleko / Ukuthengiswa): 120.000 / 1- (1.850.000 / 43.435.000) = Rp125.338

Incazelo:

  • Ikhefu-ngisho nokukhomba ku-kg yi-18kg. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kulezi zinombolo ayizuzi futhi ayilahleki.
  • Ikhefu-ngisho nephuzu le-rupiah yi-Rp125.338

I-2. Ukubuyiswa Kwezimali (ROI)

I-ROI = (Izindleko / Inani Lonke Lokukhiqiza) x100% = Rp43.435.000 / 1.920.000 = 2.262,24%.

I-3. Ukulinganisa Izindleko Zokuthola Imali (R / C)

Ukukhishwa kwebhizinisi lokukhiqiza izinga eliphansi lingabuyekezwa yiziphakamiso ezilandelayo,

R / C = Inzuzo (Rp) / Ingqikithi Yokukhiqiza Yonke (Rp) = Rp43.435.000 / Rp1.920.000 = 22,62

Inani le-R / C elitholiwe yi-22,62 noma ngaphezulu kuka-1. Lesi sibalo sibonisa ukuthi ibhizinisi lokukhiqiza i-magot eliphakathi likwazi kakhulu ukugijima.

I-4. Isikhathi sokukhokha (i-PBP)

Ukubalwa kwesikhathi sokubuyisela kulindeleke ukuba kuhlaziye isikhathi sokubuyiswa kwezimali zokutshala kwebhizinisi elikhiqizayo lomklamo we-sakla namafomu alandelayo:

I-PBP (inyanga) = Ingqikithi yokutshala imali (Rp) / Inzuzo Yokusebenza (Rp) x 1 ngonyaka = (1.100.000 / 41.515.000) x Inyanga ye-12 = Inyanga ye-0,3.

Imiphumela yalokhu kuhlaziywa kubonisa ukuthi yonke imali yokutshalwa kwezimali yamabhizinisi okukhiqiza ama-magot aphakathi nendawo izobuya esikhathini sezinyanga ze-0,3.

ukuhlaziywa kwe-maggot-ibhizinisi-ukulima

B. Ukufakwa kwe-Small Scale Business Analysis

  • Ekuhlaziyeni lezinkomo ze-maggot, kucatshangwa ukuthi i-insectarium yakhiwe endaweni ye-100 m2 ne-larvarium ehlanganisa indawo ye-100 m2
  • Inani lemfucuza ephilayo esetshenziswa yi-500kg / ngosuku
  • Ama-Magot akhiqizwa ngu-10% wempahla eluhlaza. Okusho ukuthi ukukhiqizwa kwamagot kuyinto i-50 kg / ngosuku
  • Amagot atholakalayo asetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kwe-pupa noma izinambuzane okungenani i-15%, kanti enye i-85% ithengiswa embonini ye-aquaculture
  • Intengo yokuthengisa yamagot kuyinto Rp7.000 / kg
  • Inani lokuthengisa lomanyolo ophilayo kusuka kwinkqubo ye-bioconversion ngu-Rp1.000 / kg.

Izindleko zokusebenza

Ukuhlaziywa kwemfuyo yamagogasi - Imininingwane yezindleko zokutshala izimali kanye nokukhiqizwa kweMagot

ukuhlaziywa kokulima kwe-maggot-BSF

Izindleko Zokukhiqiza Zonke

Inani lezindleko zokukhiqiza ezenziwa ekukhiqizeni ukukhiqizwa kwamagotane ngonyaka owodwa

Izindleko Zokukhiqiza Zonke = Izindleko Ezihleliwe + Izindleko ezingenziwanga Fixed

Rp32.050.000 + Rp9.900.000 = Rp40.450.000

Ingeniso Yonke Ngonyaka

Imali engenayo ngonyaka ngonyaka = Inani eliphelele lokukhiqizwa kwamagot (kg) X inani lokuthengisa lamagot (Rp)

= (50kg / usuku X Rp7.000) X 85% X (izinsuku ezingu-365 - amasonto angu-52) = Rp108.587.500

Ukulahlekelwa Inzuzo

Inani lezinzuzo ezitholakala ebhizinisini lokukhiqiza lingabalwa ngokusebenzisa ifomula elandelayo.

Inzuzo (Rp) = Ingeniso Yonke (Rp) - Inani Lonke Lokukhiqiza (Rp)

Rp108.587.500 - Rp40.450.000 = Rp68.137.500

Ukutholakala kwamabhizinisi angama-Medium-Scale

Ngokusekelwe kwedatha yokuhlaziywa kwebhizinisi ngenhla, amandla okwenza ibhizinisi lokukhiqiza magot angathathwa kanje:

I-1. I-BEP (Phula ngisho nendawo)

Break Even Point (BEP) ku-Units

i-formula-bep

Incazelo:

  • I-BEP: Phula ngisho nendawo
  • I-FC: Izindleko ezihleliwe
  • I-VC: Izindleko eziguqukayo
  • P: Inani ngeyunithi
  • S: I-Sales Volume

Break Break Point (BEP) e-Rupiah

i-formula-bep-rp

Izindleko ezihleliwe kanye nezindleko ezingapheli ngekg

  • I-Fixed Cost = I-Fixed Cost / Production Unit = 32.050.000 / 15.513 = 2.066 Kg
  • Izindleko ezingezona ezihleliwe = Izinkokhelo ezingaguquki / Izindleko zokukhiqiza = 9.900.000 / 15.513 = 638 Kg

BEP Kg

  • Izindleko ezifakiwe / (Intengo yokuthengisa nge-Kg - Izindleko ezifakiwe nge-Kg) = 32.050.000 / (Rp7.000 - 638 Kg) = 5.038 Kg

I-BEP ku-Rupiah

  • Izindleko ezihleliwe / 1- (Izindleko / Ukuthengiswa): 32.050.000 / 1- (9.900.000 / 108.587.500) = Rp35.265.149

Incazelo:

  • Ukuphumula-ngisho nokukhomba ku kg yi-5.038 kg. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kulezi zinombolo ayizuzi futhi ayilahleki.
  • Ikhefu-ngisho nephuzu le-rupiah yi-Rp35.265.149

I-2. Ukubuyiswa Kwezimali (ROI)

I-ROI = (Izindleko / Inani Lonke Lokukhiqiza) x100% = Rp108.587.500 / 40.450.000 = 268,45%.

I-3. Ukulinganisa Izindleko Zokuthola Imali (R / C)

Ukukhishwa kwebhizinisi lokukhiqiza izinga eliphansi lingabuyekezwa yiziphakamiso ezilandelayo,

R / C = Inzuzo (Rp) / Ingqikithi Yokukhiqiza Yonke (Rp) = Rp108.587.500 / Rp40.450.000 = 2,68

Inani le-R / C elitholiwe yi-2,68 noma ngaphezulu kuka-1. Lesi sibalo sibonisa ukuthi ibhizinisi lokukhiqiza i-magot eliphakathi likwazi kakhulu ukugijima.

I-4. Isikhathi sokukhokha (i-PBP)

Ukubalwa kwesikhathi sokubuyisela kulindeleke ukuba kuhlaziye isikhathi sokubuyiswa kwezimali zokutshala kwebhizinisi elikhiqizayo lomklamo we-sakla namafomu alandelayo:

I-PBP (inyanga) = Ingqikithi yokutshala imali (Rp) / Inzuzo Yokusebenza (Rp) x 1 ngonyaka = (17.750.000 / 68.137.500) x Inyanga ye-12 = Inyanga ye-3.1.

Imiphumela yalokhu kuhlaziywa kubonisa ukuthi yonke imali yokutshalwa kwezimali yamabhizinisi okukhiqiza ama-magot aphakathi nendawo izobuya esikhathini sezinyanga ze-3.1.

ukuhlaziywa kwe-maggot-ibhizinisi-ukulima

B. Ukuhlolwa kwe-Medium Scale Business Analysis

  • Ekuhlaziyweni kwale nkomo ye-maggot, kucatshangwa ukuthi i-insectarium yakhiwe endaweni ye-400 m2 ne-larvarium ehlanganisa indawo ye-400 M2
  • Inani lemfucuza ephilayo esetshenzisiwe yi-3 amathani / usuku
  • Ama-Magot akhiqizwa ngu-10% wempahla eluhlaza. Okusho ukuthi ukukhiqizwa kwamagot kuyinto i-300 kg / ngosuku
  • Amagot atholakalayo asetshenziselwa ukukhiqizwa kwe-pupa noma izinambuzane okungenani i-15%, kanti enye i-85% ithengiswa embonini ye-aquaculture
  • Intengo yokuthengisa yamagot kuyinto Rp7.000 / kg
  • Inani lokuthengisa lomanyolo ophilayo kusuka kwinkqubo ye-bioconversion ngu-Rp1.000 / kg.

Izindleko zokusebenza

Ukuhlaziywa kwemfuyo yamagogasi - Imininingwane yezindleko zokutshala izimali kanye nokukhiqizwa kweMagot

ukuhlaziywa kokulima kwe-maggot-BSF

Izindleko Zokukhiqiza Zonke

Inani lezindleko zokukhiqiza ezenziwa ekukhiqizeni ukukhiqizwa kwamagotane ngonyaka owodwa

Izindleko Zokukhiqiza Zonke = Izindleko Ezihleliwe + Izindleko ezingenziwanga Fixed

Rp120.300.000 + Rp26.700.000 = Rp139.500.000

Ingeniso Yonke Ngonyaka

Imali engenayo ngonyaka ngonyaka = Inani eliphelele lokukhiqizwa kwamagot (kg) X inani lokuthengisa lamagot (Rp)

= (300kg / usuku X Rp7.000) X 85% X (izinsuku ezingu-365 - amasonto angu-52) = Rp651.525.000

Ukulahlekelwa Inzuzo

Inani lezinzuzo ezitholakala ebhizinisini lokukhiqiza lingabalwa ngokusebenzisa ifomula elandelayo.

Inzuzo (Rp) = Ingeniso Yonke (Rp) - Inani Lonke Lokukhiqiza (Rp)

Rp651.525.000 - Rp139.500.000 = Rp512.025.000

Ukutholakala kwamabhizinisi angama-Medium-Scale

Ngokusekelwe kwedatha yokuhlaziywa kwebhizinisi ngenhla, amandla okwenza ibhizinisi lokukhiqiza magot angathathwa kanje:

I-1. I-BEP (Phula ngisho nendawo)

Break Even Point (BEP) ku-Units

i-formula-bep

Incazelo:

  • I-BEP: Phula ngisho nendawo
  • I-FC: Izindleko ezihleliwe
  • I-VC: Izindleko eziguqukayo
  • P: Inani ngeyunithi
  • S: I-Sales Volume

Break Break Point (BEP) e-Rupiah

i-formula-bep-rp

Izindleko ezihleliwe kanye nezindleko ezingapheli ngekg

  • Izindleko ezihleliwe = Izindleko ezihleliwe / Abasebenzi bokukhiqiza = 120.300.000 / 93.075 = 1.293Kg
  • Izindleko ezingezona ezihleliwe = Izinkokhelo ezingaguquki / Izindleko zokukhiqiza = 26.700.000 / 93.075 = 287 Kg

BEP Kg

  • Izindleko ezihleliwe / (Intengo yokuthengisa nge-Kg - Izindleko ezifakiwe nge-Kg) = 120.300.000 / (Rp7.000 - 287Kg) = 17.920 Kg

I-BEP ku-Rupiah

  • Izindleko ezihleliwe / 1- (Izindleko / Ukuthengiswa): 120.300.000 / 1- (26.700.000 / 651.525.000) = Rp125.440.655

Incazelo:

  • Ikhefu-ngisho nokukhomba ku-kg yi-17.290kg. Lokhu kusho ukuthi kulezi zinombolo ayizuzi futhi ayilahleki.
  • Ikhefu-ngisho nephuzu le-rupiah yi-Rp125.440.655

I-2. Ukubuyiswa Kwezimali (ROI)

I-ROI = (Izindleko / Inani Lonke Lokukhiqiza) x100% = Rp651.525.000.000 / Rp139.500.000 = 467,04%

I-3. Ukulinganisa Izindleko Zokuthola Imali (R / C)

Ukukhishwa kwebhizinisi lokukhiqiza izinga eliphansi lingabuyekezwa yiziphakamiso ezilandelayo,

R / C = Inzuzo (Rp) / Ingqikithi Yokukhiqiza Yonke (Rp) = Rp651.525.000 / Rp139.500.000 = 4,67

Inani le-R / C elitholiwe yi-4,67 noma ngaphezulu kuka-1. Lesi sibalo sibonisa ukuthi ibhizinisi lokukhiqiza i-magot eliphakathi likwazi kakhulu ukugijima.

I-4. Isikhathi sokukhokha (i-PBP)

Ukubalwa kwesikhathi sokubuyisela kulindeleke ukuba kuhlaziye isikhathi sokubuyiswa kwezimali zokutshala kwebhizinisi elikhiqizayo lomklamo we-sakla namafomu alandelayo:

I-PBP (inyanga) = Ingqikithi yokutshala imali (Rp) / Inzuzo Yokusebenza (Rp) x 1 ngonyaka = (246.500.000 / 512.025.000) x Inyanga ye-12 = Inyanga ye-5,8.

Imiphumela yalokhu kuhlaziywa kubonisa ukuthi yonke imali yokutshalwa kwezimali yamabhizinisi okukhiqiza ama-magot aphakathi nendawo izobuya esikhathini sezinyanga ze-5,8.

Amasheya

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